Fix Lead Wrist Extension to Square the Clubface

Two images of the same golfer side-by-side. The left side shows incorrect wrist position and open club face indicated with a red 'X', where the golfer has extended wrists shown by arrows pointing up. The right side shows correct wrist position and square club face indicated with a green check, where the wrists are flexed shown with arrows pointing slightly down

Image left: more wrist (cupping) – opens the clubface, delays squaring it to target.
Image right: more wrist flexion (bowing) – closes the clubface earlier, helps to square it to target.

Tour players, in general, are better at squaring the clubface early.

Pros square the clubface early, while amateurs often have too much lead wrist extension (cupping) at the top. Amateurs try to square the clubface too late, which leads to inconsistent contact and uncontrolled ball flight – slices and hooks. This is a constant trend in Hackmotion wrist sensor’s data. Hackmotion Wrist sensor measures all aspects of wrist motion during a golf swing – flexion/extension (bowing/cupping), radial/ulnar deviation (hinging/unhinging), global rotation, and tempo.

Data shows clear differences

Take a look at the picture below. In one simple chart from HackMotion sensor, you can see the clear difference between amateur player and a pro. The graph view shows lead wrist extension/flexion (cupping/bowing) throughout the swing. Note the graphs between the vertical lines: in the middle (top of the backswing) and at the end (impact).

The green solid line represents a typical amateur swing. When starting from the top of the backswing, amateurs first increase the extension (cupping) in their lead wrist (the peak in the green line) and then sharply try to decrease it. This typically happens when players try to add lag to their swing, not realizing that they are opening the clubface instead.

The green dotted line represents a tour player. The player is not increasing the extension (cupping). Instead, at the top, he is gradually flexing (bowing) the wrist until impact, thereby closing the clubface.

Solid green line: Typical amateur player pattern: more extension at the top and increased extension during transition, delayed squaring of the clubface.

Dotted green line: Tour player extension pattern: gradual decrease of lead wrist extension during transition, squaring the clubface early.

Clubface control is key for consistent ball flight.

The wrists directly control the clubface. Lead wrist extension (cupping) opens the clubface while wrist flexion (bowing) closes the clubface. Excessive lead wrist extension (cupping) during transition and downswing is why the clubface stays open too long and players struggle with controlling ball flight.

Pros Square the Clubface Early

Easy way to improve clubface control

One of the best ways to improve clubface control is HackMotion Wrist Sensor’s audio biofeedback feature. It is specifically designed to guide the wrist during the golf swing. Instead of physically limiting the movement of the wrist, the biofeedback plays a sound, letting the player know when they are outside the set range of movement. HackMotion’s data shows that by using biofeedback, players are able to significantly improve clubface control, even after a short lesson.

To use the biofeedback follow these 3 easy steps:

Step 01:

Do a few swings to measure the wrist movement. Pay close attention to the differences between extension (cupping) at address, the top of the backswing, and during transition. For example, the player has a 20 degree difference in extension, 30 degrees at address and 50 degrees at the top. Decreasing  the extension at the top of the swing can make squaring the clubface easier.

Step 02:

Set the biofeedback range for wrists based on your data. In this example, with flexion/extension (bowing/cupping), we suggest setting the range between 10 and 30 degrees.

Test the biofeedback

Test the biofeedback and get used to it. Move your wrist around so that you can get comfortable with the audio feedback.

Step 03:

Do slow rehearsals with real-time biofeedback. After you get used to the new feel, take some full speed swings.

To learn more about HackMotion Biofeedback take a look here.

All of our information is based on carefully analyzed pro player data, developed together with leading golf instructors.

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Example of BEFORE and AFTER

In the image below, you can see an example of the change you can achieve by fixing lead wrist extension by using biofeedback.


Excessive wrist extension at the top (cupping) leads to an open clubface during downswing. An open clubface causes less accuracy and a loss of control over ball flight. The player has 60 degrees of wrist extension at the top.


Less extension at the top, better clubface control, improved distance, and more accuracy. The path went from -6 to +1 and the speed went up 6 mph with a six iron. Now it is easier to square the clubface early.

The Red line

is lead wrist extension (positive) / flexion (negative) before practicing with Hackmotion sensor’s biofeedback. The big “wave” upwards in the middle of the graph shows that the player had a very extended wrist at the top and added more of extension during transition.

The Green line

shows the result after working with biofeedback. The slope between top and impact shows that the player has gradually decreased extension, squaring the clubface earlier and having flatter wrist at impact.

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Learn from      SCOTT COWX      PGA Canada coach of the year

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